Failure of gabble walls on top of the building during the Van earthquake. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. World Engineering Congress, Serawak. Burak Yön, Erkut Sayın and Onur Onat (February 1st 2017). This type of damage for adobe and masonry buildings is shown in Figure 20 [42]. GEOTECHNICAL MITIGATION STRATEGIES FOR EARTHQUAKE SURFACE FAULT RUPTURE Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M. Share. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Sarawak Sarawak has also experienced a number of seismic events of native origins, The Effect of Sumatra Earthquakes to Peninsular Malaysia Proceeding Asia Pacific Structural Engineering Conference. Wooden logs that bear the weight of the floor of the building are generally placed on load-bearing walls in only one direction. risk. Liquefaction Phenomenon and Mitigation Strategies for Soil Engineering. If the floors of the buildings are not at the same level, pounding effect of the buildings becomes more dangerous. Structural Strategies a) Flood Mitigation. Liquefaction Phenomenon and Mitigation Strategies for Soil Engineering. Structural connectors are required to provide damping properties to the structure and effectively accommodate relatively large deformations. Earthquake loads increase the shear force. Earthquake engineering is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering that designs and analyzes structures, such as buildings and bridges, with earthquakes in mind. ATC-22 is carried out after the Rapid Visual Screening (RSP) evaluation procedure. Resources . Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. This process is called as “elastic rebound” theory. Bahru, 26– 28 August. Hence, finite element modeling and analysis has been used extensively to solve the complicated structural problems involving non-linear and dynamic problems. But the causes of fatalities and the extent of damages depend on lack of engineering service, design faults, material quality, and workmanship. [9] incorporate both structural and nonstructural mitigation measures in new development, examine ways to reduce the vulnerability of existing structures, take steps to reduce the vulnerability of natural resources, and. The objective of this research is to develop strategies to mitigate damage, injury and business disruption associated with the earthquakes in the most vulnerable buildings of Australia’s cities. Thus, these two plates are released through the rupture of the interface zone. When the increased stresses reached to bearing capacity of the crust on faults, this event causes sliding (breakthrough). 1994. motion will occur on the one to ten - storey buildings in Penang and Kuala Lumpur. http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/epic/epic.html. In Italy, 308 people were killed and more than 1500 people were injured after L’Aquila earthquake in 2009. The ground vibration can cause structural collapse, loss of lives and property damages. evaluated strong ground motion and geotechnical and structural damages during the 2011 Van Turkey earthquakes [30]. As a result of this reaction, a seismic motion is produced. Earthquakes for instance can lead to tsunami, landslide and soil liquefaction. This paper revealed that the effect from Sumatran earthquakes towards Malaysian bridges is still questionable and a proper site-inspection together with post-earthquake inspections is required to carry immediately. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Lemnitzer et al. Structural Strategies a) Flood Mitigation. Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and have been recorded in Malaysia since 1897 (Stud, Malaysian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment), 2 tremors measuring 3.5 Magnitude on, heaven Genting Highlands, 20km to Batu Dam. Thus, homogeny mixing was not obtained and expected compressive strength was not provided in these buildings. Figure 12 shows this failure below. But masonry buildings are preferred because of the advantages such as thermal properties and simple construction by using local materials [31]. NON-STRUCTURAL MITIGATION AGAINST EARTHQUAKE: A CASE STUDY OF ISTANBUL MUSEUMS Nevra Ertürk * and Bilgen Sungay** * Research Assistant, Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Art and Design, Museum Studies Graduate Program and Art Management Program, nerturk@yildiz.edu.tr * Architect, Project Development Team, Bogazici * University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake … . Normal fault graphical presentation and mechanism [7]. of a specific area. Thus, the weight and thickness of the roof increase over time. for Science Education, North Eastern Hill University Bijni Complex, Laitumkhrah, Shillong Corner damage of briquette masonry buildings [42]. The methodology is based on attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country The purpose of this Non-Structural Earthquake Mitigation Guidance Manual is to help the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), State, and local officials, and other stakeholders answer two central questions about non-structural seismic hazard mitigation projects. Gelang Patah, even though the location of epicenter and the depth. Constructing long and unsupported walls should be refrained. During the Disaster. P-waves generate sequential push (or compression) and pull (or tension) in soil as shown in below Figure 8a. National Earthquake Information Center United Stated Geological Survey, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. It can damage walls and their connections. undertake mitigation training with support from state and federal governments. warnings, reduce vulnerability and/or prevent future disasters, it is. The shapeless blocks show immediate reaction towards equilibrium. For reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings, inappropriate design such as soft and weak stories, strong beam–weak column, short column, hammering, unconfined gable wall and in-plane/out-of-plane movement of the walls causes damages. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation. The community should also be educated on the limits of structural mitigation works and the appropriate action required should breaches occur. The last earthquake tragedy for Turkey, very close to present time, is Erciş (Van) and Edremit (Van) earthquakes. (500–2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the effects of Sumatra earthquake have to be considered more seriously in Peninsular Malaysia. Adobe blocks are produced from local material contains mixed soil with straw and leave dried under the sun. highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of The regional hazard mapping for the whole Eastern Asia was coordinated by the SSB Regional Centre in Beijing, originating from the expansion of the test area initially established in the border region of China-India-Nepal-Myanmar-Bangla Dash, in coordination with the other Regional Centres (JIPE, Moscow, and AGSO, Canberra) and with the direct assistance of the USGS. … Seismic hazard map around Northern Sumatra (with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) prepared by USGS-NEIC (2003). The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with functions in GIS tools. One of the most important reasons of life and economic loss during the earthquake is combined effect of in-plane and out-of-plane movement of the wall. Buildings are sometimes constructed adjacent because of the lack of building lots. The purpose of this chapter was to present earthquake characteristics and structural defects, damages, and possible solutions. Generally, earthen roofs are constructed over wooden logs supported by two main walls of the buildings to provide thermal and water insulation. Body waves include primary waves (known as P-waves) and secondary waves (also called as S-waves). A disaster is a result from the. No need to build separate structures and to install earthquake … The structural damages of buildings were investigated during the December 26, 2003, Bam earthquake in Iran by Ahmadizadeh and Shakib [13]. Braga et al. from emergencies and their effects in the shortest. They investigated the damaged buildings and the failure mechanisms in their study [39]. effects into earthquake disaster mitigation planning. Joshi, S.R.,Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for The destructive potential of earthquakes depends on many factors such as focal depth, epicenter distance, and local site conditions. The regional hazard depicts the expected peak ground acceleration with 10% exceedance probability in 50 years. c)Good workmanship and adequate supervision. Note that in civil and structural engineering, the term “structural” … capacities of local people, and the related livelihood protection issues are undermined because state, conclusion, with a greater capacity of the indi. In addition to this, appropriate solutions are suggested. Hermanns et al. The researches done by the author involve investigation and solution of the problems created by damaging earthquakes. Seismic hazard map around Northern Sumatra (with 10% probability of exceedance in, 50 years) prepared by USGS-NEIC (2003). Thus, during an earthquake, partial and total collapses occur in these storeys. encourage developments to reduce the impact of disasters. The walls of the buildings could not support heavy mass during an earthquake, and the heavy roof partially or completely collapsed. Submitted: May 25th 2016Reviewed: August 29th 2016Published: February 1st 2017, Home > Books > Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation. As the thickness of the walls is relatively large, these stone walls are constructed by using more than one stone along the thickness direction [28]. assessed the damages of concrete and masonry buildings after the March 8, 2010, Elazığ earthquakes in Turkey [23]. In this layout plan, one or two faces of two buildings are in contact to each other. As a result of these heavy roofs, the structures are subjected to larger inertia forces during the earthquakes [41]. The acceleration is expressed in m/s. So, an effective mitigation planning is necessary to reduce the risk involved in the district. The materials were modified to be. Nearly 10,000 people were killed every year because of these hazards. During the horizontal displacements, these heavy roofs are very vulnerable since they can easily slide over the walls [30]. Hilary Kendro from the Strategic Alliance for Risk Reduction (STARR). These earthquakes struck Erciş (Van) district and Edremit (Van) district on 2011. Using Hazus to quantitatively estimate potential losses from an earthquake. and Flores. Although failures of gable walls are not structural damages, these damages may be cause loss of lives and properties. evaluated the performance of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings during the Bhuj earthquake in India on January 26, 2001 [11]. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Seismic activity that results in earthquake generates two types of seismic waves: body and surface. Diagonal shear (a-b), horizontal (c) and stepped (d) failures wall [42]. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Also, the gable walls of some masonry buildings are affected negatively by the out-of-plane mechanism. According to the state of the art of Plate tectonic, the earthquake occurs in some parts of the plate and these parts act relative to each other. ATC-22 is a handbook for seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings (Priliminary), prepared by the Applied Technology Council for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Yön et al. Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre for Science Education. Beside tsunami, earthquakes can create many more disasters such as liquefaction, landslides, earth ruptures and most prominently ground vibration. Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. 2002. Earthquakes have only been recognised in the design of Australian buildings since 1995. Nearly no engineering services are used in these buildings [20]. This type of application should be refrained. Strain energy, which cumulated for a long time, discharges with sliding and causes earthquake shaking. The resulting fracture in the crust of earthquake is defined as “fault”. Earthquake Mitigation People who live in or visit Oregon enjoy some of the most beautiful scenic places in the United States; this beauty however has an underlying cost; earthquakes. As Indonesia is located in active tectonic areas, it is certainly a challenge in the process of determining the alignment and technical design of the toll road. Figure 23 presents this failure in stone masonry buildings. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Draft National Disaster Management Earthquakes cause lots of damage to property and even result in deaths. disasters, the impact of a hazard would be significantly reduced. Mahmood and Ingham assessed the seismic vulnerability of unreinforced masonry buildings in Pakistan using three empirical (New Zealand, United States, and Indian) methods [27]. This important reason can be eliminated by inspecting concrete and workmanship. Therefore, structural elements which have such details show low performance against to dynamic loads and lost their shear and axial load carrying capacity. Non-structural Mitigation. Based on these considerations, the alignment of the Probolinggo-Banyuwangi toll road is in the process of being submitted for a shift to the east in order to avoid the location of the Wonorejo fault. Structural Mitigation. In recent years, one of the infrastructures that experiences significant development is the toll road. Section 3 gives failure reasons of reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings. Malaysia. Bridge inspection identifies the current conditions and the problems in the bridge but seismic vulnerability identifies the expected potential of seismic hazards of a bridge due to lateral seismic forces. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Rossetto and Peiris evaluated the performance of government, commercial, and residential buildings after the October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake in Pakistan. Failure of gabble wall is presented in Figure 16. However, construction of buildings by using local materials with poor workmanship on the base of traditional rules is the other reason of failures for these buildings. Its application has enabled satisfactory solutions to be obtained for many problems which had previously been regarded as insoluble. evaluated the reinforced concrete building damages during the 2011 Van earthquakes [32, 33]. Earthquakes are the most destructive natural hazards throughout human history. Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies. for generating and mapping the spatial pattern of social vulnerability index for seismic hazard c)Legal framework. PREVENTIVE AND MITIGATION MEASURES When earthquake strikes a building is thrown mostly from side to side, and also up and down along with the building foundation the building structure tends to stay at rest, similar to a passenger standing on a bus that accelerates quickly. studied the damages of various structures during the March 8, 2010, Elazığ-Kovancılar earthquake in Turkey [28]. The research work covers the seismic hazard assessment, vulnerability and risk studies of structures and infrastructures, practical application of new innovative products for earthquake disaster solutions, such as new types of base isolators, dampers, sensors and intelligent system in monitoring and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities. Earthquake. studied the failures of masonry and adobe buildings during the June 23, 2011, Maden, Elazığ earthquake in Turkey [31]. The evaluation of the seismic risk is considered essential to define strategic urban and emergency planning management actions and should be based on the analysis of the buildings, the exposed population and their emergency interaction. Figure 3. However, the magnitude of prevailing earthquake induced risk needs detailed earthquake hazard assessment, design earthquake resistant structures; implement the seismic building codes and public awareness to adopt for earthquake risk reduction. This type of mechanism generally occurs at wall-to-wall and wall-to-roof connections when subjected to out-of-plane displacements. Adalıer and Aydıngün evaluated the structural damages and the geological conditions for 1998 Adana–Ceyhan earthquake in Turkey [10]. Section 2 shows structure of the earth, plate tectonics, seismic waves, faults, and effects of earthquakes. eds. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. cabinets to walls to keep them from falling during earthquakes. S-waves produce shear stresses in the soil along their paths [6] as shown in Figure 8b. Devastating effects of natural disasters dynamically depends on the vulnerability components It should be refrained to construct large window and door openings. consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Many researchers studied and evaluated structural damages of reinforced concrete (R/C) and masonry buildings after the past earthquakes in different regions. *Address all correspondence to: burakyon@gmail.com, Earthquakes - Tectonics, Hazard and Risk Mitigation. Bangkok, 14 – 18 December 1987. Thus, this failure mechanism is triggered by earthquake. Siddhartha Sengupta - July 22, 2020 . The outer layer is 2300 km, and inner layer is 1200 km thickness [1]. Thailand Surface waves cause serious damage to structures due to their long duration [6]. Out-of-plane mechanism of the briquette buildings [42]. The great Sumatran earthquake occurred on the 26th December 2004, measuring at 9.3 on the Richter Scale, had created tsunami that killed 283,100 people from surrounding countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. Because earthquakes are natural events that have not been accurately calculated and estimated, both when and where they occur as well as their magnitude, according to the mitigation strategies for fault rupture suggested by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), the fault rupture should be avoided, even more, earthquakes have the potential to cause large losses. Hence, the earthquake engineering research is needed in order to predict the possibility of earthquake in the future that can cause damages to the buildings and structures as well as to find the solution for mitigating the effects. Geographical distribution of the 1700 earthquakes on the worldwide [5]. Measured magnitude of earthquake from surface is 8.0. In September, 2000, FEMA released a study estimating annual earthquake losses in the United States to be $4.4 billion, with California, Oregon and Washington accounting for $3.3 billion. Print. Geotechnical Mitigation Strategies for Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture Nicolas K. Oettle, S.M.ASCE1; and Jonathan D. Bray, F.ASCE2 Abstract: Surface fault rupture can be damaging to structures built on or near active faults if the hazard is not addressed properly. Reliable analysis result can be obtained if the models being simulated really reflect the actual conditions of the structure. mitigation activities. A building does not meet the life-safety objective of ATC-22 if one or more of the following events occur; the entire building collapse, portions of the building collapse, components of the building fail and fall, exit and entry routes are blocked, preventing the evacuation and rescue the occupants. Corner damages are developed due to insufficient wall-to-wall connections and lack of horizontal and vertical bond beams. In general structural mitigation is the … development on a set of social indicators using multivariate data analysis to identify and Main reasons of masonry building damages in terms of design faults can be shown as heavy earthen roofs, inappropriate detailing of wall to wall connection and wall to roof connection, absence of bond beams, large openings. USGS has helped to develop and promote these scenarios, creating video simulations and other information that engage and inform those who would be affected by these potential seismic events. The finite element method has become widely accepted by the engineering professions as an extremely valuable method of analysis. Earthquakes can cause devastating effects in terms of life and property. Facebook. This type of failure is prevented during design phase by designing with more detail. WhatsApp. On the contrary, S-wave propagates horizontal and vertical motion. In these walls, stones are placed in a random order. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. Spectra at Far Field. Nonstructural hazards pose a great risk to students, staff and visitors in schools during earthquakes.Nonstructural items like ceiling tiles, light fixtures, large windows, and parapets, as well as contents like bookshelves, file cabinets, computer monitors, and vending machines can fall and injure or kill occupants and block safe building egress. Shear forces increase during an earthquake especially at columns and beam–column joints. In addition to this, low quality of structural materials, poor workmanship, lack of engineering services, and construction with insufficient detailing of the structural elements are the another reasons of damages. . term of earthquake loading and some modifications and amendments are required for the current code of practice. Deep and rigid beams are used with flexible columns in type of buildings. earthquake risk mitigation strategies. All Eastern Asian countries have participated directly in this regional effort, with the addition of Japan, for which an existing national hazard map was incorporated. This paper argues for a multidisciplinary method that integrates social vulnerability into These units are easily broken into small pieces as they have very low strength. Hundreds of thousand people lost their lives and loss of billions of dollars’ properties occurred in these disasters. Earthquake Mitigation People who live in or visit Oregon enjoy some of the most beautiful scenic places in the United States; this beauty however has an underlying cost; earthquakes. (a) Detachment of infill wall during the Bingöl earthquake and (b) In-plane damage of during the Van earthquake. See Answer. incorporate both structural and nonstructural mitigation measures in new development, examine ways to reduce the vulnerability of existing structures, take steps to reduce the vulnerability of natural resources, and. HAZUS is often used to … Zhao et al. Tools of GIS and remote sensing are frequently and effectively used for earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment and assist in developing risk reduction strategies. The exponential development of sophisticated numerical method and computer technologies has helped structural analysis to produce realistic numerical models for high-rise buildings subjected to static and dynamic loads considering linear and non-linear properties of the structural system. With this incidence, Malaysia need to be prepared to confront with such disasters, which not only originate from our country but also from countries near by. Loud speakers and battery (alternate) power is available. For efficient disaster mitigation, the pre-disaster phase needs to be utilized for planning and implementing preventive measures on the one hand and working on preparedness activities on the other. In mid-rise reinforced concrete buildings, the most common failure mode is soft-storey mechanism, particularly at the first storey. Calayır et al. Figure 21 shows the out-of-plane mechanism of the adobe and briquette masonry buildings, respectively. Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) in Continental Asia. Failure mechanism of strong beam–weak column can be seen in Figure 15. sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis Maintaining a database to track community vulnerability to earthquake risk. Earthquake Mitigation, introduces earthquake hazards and describes measures that can help reduce the risk of life and property should an earthquake occur at the school. system, and no subjects related to earthquake offered at the secondary schools and universities. Thus, the whole or the significant parts of the wall fall down during the earthquake. In the last quarter century, severe earthquakes on the world like 1995 Kobe, Japan, 1998 Afghanistan, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, 2001 Gujarat, India, 2003 Bam, Iran, 2004 Indian Ocean, 2008 Wenchuan, China, 2009 L’Aqulia, Italy, 2010 Haiti, 2010 Chile, and 2011 Van earthquakes experienced construction industry to take severe measures to prevent collapse and to decrease damages of the structure; for example, after 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake, it was reported that more than 6434 people lost their lives; nearly 4600 of them were from Kobe. They determined the earthquake damages in reinforced concrete buildings and presented in their study [38]. Earthquake mitigation and response planning has been enhanced at all levels of government and in the private sector through the use of realistic earthquake scenarios. Damage to adobe structures due to heavy earthen roof during the Van earthquake [42]. Top Answer. Figure 2. Non Structural Mitigation Against Earthquake A Case Study Of Istanbul Museums 1 Introduction The Exposure Marmara And. Development of Seismic Hazard Map for Subsequent to facing extensive devastation by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the government has realized the importance of earthquake management and hence encouraged the scientific research aiming for earthquake hazard assessment and strategies for risk reduction. Vulnerability Study of Public Buildings Subjected to Earthquake by ATC-21, ATC-22 and Finite Element... A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia, A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia, Conference: 9th Asia Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC2015). With the United States having four percent Pakistan is located in one of the most earthquake prone region with many devastating earthquakes in the past and active tectonic shows that there might be more earthquakes in future. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. Figure 9a and b shows these types of waves. Poorly built manmade structures injure and kill people.” 0“During the 20th Century, on average 20,000 people died from earthquakes each year. earthquake mitigation strategies fall into two groups, long-andshort-term.Weaddresslong-termmethods first, focusing on the use of earthquake-resistant buildings. Manfredi et al. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Of cement mortar causes insufficient adherence between the world ’ s based on the following pages are in! During the 2011 Lorca, Spain, earthquakes, more than 370,000 injured and 300,000 became! Assessment across the country such as buildings and presented in their study [ 37 ] and you... 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Seismic potential in the modern years occurred in these buildings [ 42 ] UNITED Nations Programme. Frame should be prevented while constructing stone masonry buildings after the may 12, 2008, effective!