Pope. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. [2] However, the two factions of cardinals differed over whether the church ought to prioritize the continuation of the Italian League or should prioritize papal power (especially vis-a-vis Naples) over the preservation of the peace. In 1475 his successor Pope Sixtus IV founded the Palatine Library. He died a martyr. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. 14. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. Sixtus II is referred to by name in the Roman Canon of the Mass. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. Saint. 1. Sixtus V, pope from 1585 to 1590, who reformed the Curia. Pope Pius V … Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". Pope Sixtus IV : biography 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484 The English theologian John Bale attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the Cardinal of Santa Lucia.Giovanni Lydus, Analecta in librum Nicolai de Clemangiis, De corrupto Ecclesiae statu. Title of Ss. In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riario nephews, not all of whom were made cardinals; the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II/ Giuliano Della Rovere standing before him; and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere, behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the popes. Successor: Innocent VIII. "Conclave of August 26 - 29, 1484", Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, The election of Pope Innocent VIII (1484), Adams, John Paul. Those concessions were confirmed by Sixtus in his own bull, Aeterni regis, of 21 June 1481. "Sede Vacant August 12, 1484—August 29, 1484", California State University, Northridge, De aliquis mutationibus in normis de electione Romani Pontificis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1484_papal_conclave&oldid=981346519, Articles needing additional references from June 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina, administrator of Valencia, Bishop of Ostia e Velletri, bishop of Bologna, administrator of Avignon, Bishop of Palestrina, patriarch of Aquileia, Title of S. Maria in Trastevere, archbishop of Milan, Title of Ss. His first thought was the prosecution of the war against the Turks , and legates were appointed for France , Spain , Germany , Hungary , and Poland , with the hope of enkindling enthusiasm in … A marble tombstone marks the site. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. In calce a: Nicolas de Clemanges, Opera omnia, […] Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. Pope Sixtus I (42 – 124, 125, 126 or 128), also spelled Xystus, a Roman of Greek descent, was the bishop of Rome from c. 115 to his death. Sixtus IV sĭk´stəs , 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. War with Naples. The 1484 papal conclave (August 26–29) elected Pope Innocent VIII after the death of Pope Sixtus IV. Pope Sixtus iv was born in July 21, 1414, near Abisola, and died in august 12, 1484. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. Neither a crusader nor Nereo ed Achilleo, archbishop of Conza, Title of S. Stefano al Monte Celio, bishop of Parma, Deacon of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro, archbishop of Lisbon, Title of S. Crisogono, bishop of Recanati, 25 March 1471 (in pectore), 10 December1477, Title of S. Clemente, archbishop of Turin, Title of Ss. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. Alexander VI, corrupt, wordly, and ambitious pope (1492–1503), whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation. It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. He is considered a Saint by the Catholic Church. They again were influenced by Pope Sixtus IV, who was an enemy of the Medici. Pope Leo III sent him on diplomatic missions to Germany and to Hungary. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's … In 1477, Sixtus IV issued a papal bull, authorizing the creation of Uppsala University - the first university in Sweden and in the whole of Scandinavia. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439,[6] and he designated 8 December as its feastday. ^ Lauro Martines, April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. "Pope Sixtus IV." The choice of this location for the university derived from the fact that the archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century, as well as Uppsala being long-standing hub for regional trade. Vol. As a civic patron in Rome, even the anti-papal chronicler Stefano Infessura agreed that Sixtus should be admired. Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence. Pope Sixtus IV died the following evening - 12 August. For the archbishop, see, Bishops consecrated by Pope Sixtus IV as principal consecrator, On his premature death (1501), Giovanni entrusted his son, Raiswell, p. 469 see also "Black Africans in Renaissance Europe", p. 281, Sued-Badillo (2007), see also O'Callaghan, p. 287-310, Sten Lindroth. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. Pope Sixtus IV paid a formal visit to the newly restored building on 1 May 1482, and it may be that Giuliano was already in residence then. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the titular church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. Sixtus IV later studied philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia, and lectured at Padua, Bologna, Pavia, Siena, and Florence. [2], As a young man, Della Rovere joined the Franciscan Order, an unlikely choice for a political career, and his intellectual qualities were revealed while he was studying philosophy and theology at the University of Pavia. Among those to have been pope, Peter, Linus, and Clement I are specifically named in the New Testament. This included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law (Canon Law and Roman law), medicine, and philosophy, and to award the bachelor's, master's, licentiate, and doctoral degrees. [8] Six of the thirty-four cardinals that he created were his nephews.[9]. 25 Jul. This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 11:17. Sixtus IV (sĭk`stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II.He was made general of his order, the Franciscans, in 1464 and became (1467) a cardinal. A History of Uppsala University: 1477-1977. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. Giovanni e Paulo, bishop of Macon, Title of Ss. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. [25], "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. At the death of Sixtus IV, the conclave of cardinals that met to elect his … Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. Sixtus IV (sĬk´stəs), 1414–84, pope (1471–84), an Italian named Francesco della Rovere (b. near Savona); successor of Paul II. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace to his great annoyance. His accomplishments as Pope included the establishment of the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age, the Vatican Archives. [17], As a temporal prince who constructed stout fortresses in the Papal States, he encouraged the Venetians to attack Ferrara, which he wished to obtain for another nephew. 124. Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Cardinal Medici was elected Pope on 25 December 1559. Sixtus IV died on 12 August 1484 and was succeeded by Innocent VIII. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. [7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus Quartus; 21 July 1414 - 12 August 1484), originally Francesco della Rovere, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 213th Pope from 1471 until his death in 1484.. Becoming a Franciscan, he subsequently taught and was chosen minister general of his order in 1464. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. [16] Sixtus consented under political pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon,[16] who threatened to withhold military support from his kingdom of Sicily. [2] Cardinal Borja led the first faction and Cardinal della Rovere, the second; these factions were roughly aligned with the Orsini and Colonna families, respectively. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. 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