[30] A 2016 study finds that there is an ethnic component to coups: "When leaders attempt to build ethnic armies, or dismantle those created by their predecessors, they provoke violent resistance from military officers. The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the French Second Republic). [18] Numbers of successful coups have decreased over time. [55], A 2016 study shows that the implementation of succession rules reduce the occurrence of coup attempts. [76], "Coup" and "Counter-coup" redirect here. Not one to admit defeat, Louis-Napoleon spent the first half of 1851 trying to force changes to the constitution through Parliament so he could be re-elected. [16], According to Clayton Thyne and Jonathan Powell's coup dataset, there were 457 coup attempts from 1950 to 2010, of which 227 (49.7%) were successful and 230 (50.3%) were unsuccessful. A coup d’état may involve the military, or it may be a civilian force. [59] A 2019 study in Conflict Management and Peace Science found that personalist dictatorships are more likely to take coup-proofing measures than other authoritarian regimes; the authors argue that this is because "personalists are characterized by weak institutions and narrow support bases, a lack of unifying ideologies and informal links to the ruler. A 2015 study finds that "coups against democracies, coups after the Cold War, and coups in states heavily integrated into the international community are all more likely to elicit global reaction. [22] Research suggests that protests spur coups, as they help elites within the state apparatus to coordinate coups. (n.) = golpe de estado. [44], A 2020 study found that elections had a two-sided impact on coup attempts, depending on the state of the economy. A year later, the Prince-President reclaimed his uncle's throne as Emperor of the French under the regnal name Napoleon III. Notable counter-coups include the Ottoman countercoup of 1909, the 1960 Laotian counter-coup, the Indonesian mass killings of 1965–66, the 1966 Nigerian counter-coup, the 1967 Greek counter-coup, 1971 Sudanese counter-coup, and the Coup d'état of December Twelfth in South Korea. Convinced that the coup was now inevitable after the latest refusal, Louis-Napoleon fixed the anniversary of the coronation of Napoleon in 1804, and the victory of Austerlitz in 1805, as the day for the coup. [63] Part of the rationale for Civilian-based defense is to deter coups and to defeat them if they occur. ", "Counterbalancing, Spatial Dependence, and Peer Group Effects*", "Are coups good for democracy? One early use within text translated from French was in 1785 in a printed translation of a letter from a French merchant, commenting on an arbitrary decree or arrêt issued by the French king restricting the import of British wool. • Margadant, Ted (1979). A 2003 review of the academic literature found that the following factors were associated with coups: The literature review in a 2016 study includes mentions of ethnic factionalism, supportive foreign governments, leader inexperience, slow growth, commodity price shocks, and poverty. Louis-Napoleon was automatically reelected to a fresh term as president. This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 19:49. According to legal scholar Ilya Somin a coup to forcibly overthrow democratic government might be sometimes justified. tat [koo dey-tahz; French koo dey-ta]. [73], Organizations such as the African Union (AU) and the Organization of American States (OAS) have adopted anti-coup frameworks. European Portuguese: golpe de estado. Dictionary source: English Spanish Dictionary (Granada University, Spain), 7.7 More: English to Spanish translation of coup d'etat In January 1851, the Parliament voted no confidence in the Ministère des Commis. A referendum was organised to ratify the new order and the coup was portrayed as a security operation. [13], Pronunciamiento ("pronouncement") is a term of Spanish origin for a special type of coup d'état. Juste quelque chose que les français appellent un coup d'état. On the morning of 2 December, troops led by Saint-Arnaud occupied strategic points in Paris, from the Champs-Élysées to the Tuileries. Putsch was used as disinformation by Hitler and other Nazi party members to falsely claim that he had to suppress a reactionary coup during the Night of the Long Knives. [35] One study found that coups are more likely to occur in states with small populations, as there are smaller coordination problems for coup-plotters. Since an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1920, the Kapp Putsch, the Swiss-German word Putsch has also been used in English. Dataset on all military and non-military coup attempts in the world since 1946. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coup_d%27état&oldid=999159360, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, No regime change, such as when a leader is illegally shuffled out of power without changing the identity of the group in power or the rules for governing, Ousting of the dictatorship followed by democratization (also called "democratic coups"). [33] A fourth 2016 study finds that inequality between social classes increases the likelihood of coups. Prepared to strike, Louis-Napoleon appointed General Saint-Arnaud as the Minister of War and a circular was issued reminding soldiers of their pledge of "passive obedience". Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk. The phrase coup d'état comes from French coup d'État, literally meaning a "state stroke", a "blow against the state". Most prominent among these were liberals like Remusat and moderates like Pascal Duprat, who were arrested soon after. [58], A 2018 study in the Journal of Peace Research found that leaders who survive coup attempts and respond by purging known and potential rivals are likely to have longer tenures as leaders. [32] A third 2016 study finds that coups become more likely in the wake of elections in autocracies when the results reveal electoral weakness for the incumbent autocrat. [73] The US has been inconsistent in applying aid sanctions against coups both during the Cold War and post-Cold War periods, a likely consequence of its geopolitical interests. [20] Democracies were installed in the wake of 12% of Cold War coups and 40% of post-Cold War coups.[20]. [34] A fifth 2016 study finds no evidence that coups are contagious; one coup in a region does not make other coups in the region likely to follow. ", "Cues to Coup Plotters Elections as Coup Triggers in Dictatorships", "Spatial Rivalry and Coups Against Dictators", "Pitfalls of Professionalism? Code-named Operation Rubicon and timed to coincide with the anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation and victory at Austerlitz, the coup ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly and the subsequent re-establishment of the French Empire the next year. The coup culminated into a, List of coups d'état and coup attempts by country, Chair of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People of Mali, "Banque de dépannage linguistique – état", "Coup with Adjectives: Conceptual Stretching or Innovation in Comparative Research? [23], A 2016 study categorizes coups into four possible outcomes:[20], The study also found that about half of all coups—both during and after the Cold War—install new autocratic regimes. On the symbolic and historic date of 2 December 1852 (the anniversary of the Coronation of Napoleon I in 1804), President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. He did this with the support of the Parti de l'Ordre after running against Louis Eugène Cavaignac. In French, the word État (French: [eta]) is capitalized when it denotes a sovereign political entity. *Note: after the military coup d' etat of 1980, the Constitution was abolished. On 18 Fructidor, year V (Sept. 4, 1797), Gen. Pierre-François-Charles Augereau, commanding the troops, purged more than 130 royalists and counterrevolutionaries from the Corps Législatif; and many deputies, journalists, nonjuring priests, and other individuals, including the director, the marquis de Barthélemy, were deported to Guiana in South America. For other uses, see, Current leaders who assumed power via coups. It … "[31] Another 2016 study shows that protests increase the risk of coups, presumably because they ease coordination obstacles among coup plotters and make international actors less likely to punish coup leaders. Through the threat of sanctions, the organizations actively try to curb coups. The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Charles Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time, President of the French Second Republic). It’s an illegal but calculated seizure of control, with the phrase commonly associated with French dictator Napoleon Bonaparte’s power grab in 1802, and Julius Caesar crossing the Rubicon and seizing power in 49BC. Although the concept of a coup d'état has featured in politics since antiquity, the phrase is of relatively recent coinage;[7] the Oxford English Dictionary identifies it as a French expression meaning a "stroke of state". It ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly and the subsequent re-establishment of the French Empire the next year. German: Staatsstreich. The pronunciamiento is the formal explanation for deposing the regnant government, justifying the installation of the new government that was effected with the golpe de estado. The opposition faction staged a coup, unseating the elected president. Latin American Spanish: golpe de estado. For all intents and purposes, he now held all governing power in the nation. On 3 January 1850, he dismissed Changarnier, a dissident in the Parti de l'Ordre, thereby provoking an open conflict within the party. [1] Many scholars consider a coup d'état successful when the usurpers seize and hold power for at least seven days. They had a somewhat higher chance of success in Africa and Asia. coup d'État Find more words! Korean: 쿠데타. Following a referendum in December 1851, a new constitution was adopted in January 1852. [26], The cumulative number of coups is a strong predictor of future coups. The insurgents were soon defeated. The English expression coup d’état is derived from the French expression, coup d’étate, which translates as “stroke of the state.” The term came into use as an English expression in the early 1800s, though it had been … Schiel, R., Powell, J., & Faulkner, C. (2020). [1] Coups occurring in the post-Cold War period have been more likely to result in democratic systems than pre-Cold War coups,[19][20][21] though coups still mostly perpetuate authoritarianism. "[9], Clayton Thyne and Jonathan Powell's dataset of coups defines attempted coups as "illegal and overt attempts by the military or other elites within the state apparatus to unseat the sitting executive. Italian: colpo di Stato. [69], According to a 2019 study, coup attempts lead to a reduction in physical integrity rights. The authors of the study provide the following logic for why this is: "Autocratic incumbents invested in spatial rivalries need to strengthen the military in order to compete with a foreign adversary. His request for a reconsideration of the constitutional reform proposal was also turned down on 13 November. Two-thirds of the General Council supported Louis-Napoleon's cause, but in the Assembly, supporters of the Duke of Orléans, led by Thiers, concluded an alliance with the far left to oppose Louis-Napoleon's plans. info); French: [ku deta], literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form; also known simply as an overthrow, takeover, or putsch) is the removal of an existing government from power, usually through violent means. [36], A 2017 study found that autocratic leaders whose states were involved in international rivalries over disputed territory were more likely to be overthrown in a coup. ", "Integrating the Civil–Military Relations Subfield", "Reanalysis: Are coups good for democracy? Another word for Opposite of Meaning of Rhymes with Sentences with Find word forms Translate from English Translate to English Words With Friends Scrabble Crossword / Codeword Words starting with Words ending with Words containing exactly Words containing letters Pronounce Find conjugations Find names [19] A 2016 study found that democracies were installed in 12% of Cold War coups and 40% of the post-Cold War coups. ", "Why Turkey's coup failed, according to an expert", "Not all dictators are equal: Coups, fraudulent elections, and the selective targeting of democratic sanctions", "Twenty Years Later: The Tajik Civil War And Its Aftermath". 'coup d'état' est un terme alternatif pour 'coup d'etat', 'coup'. [56], According to political scientists Curtis Bell and Jonathan Powell, coup attempts in neighbouring countries lead to greater coup-proofing and coup-related repression in a region. If it starts the mass killing of elements of the army, including officers who were not involved in the coup, this may trigger a "counter-coup" by soldiers who are afraid they will be next. The country was torn apart by the French Revolution at the time when Napoleon invaded Egypt and Syria. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. French: coup d'État. Key Takeaways: Coup d'Etat A coup d'etat is the illegal, often violent overthrow of an existing government or leader by a … In less than a year, following another referendum on 7 November 1852, the Second French Empire was proclaimed. [75], According to a 2020 study, coups increase the cost of borrowing and increase the likelihood of sovereign default. A "barracks revolt" or cuartelazo is also a term for military revolt, from the Spanish term cuartel ("quarter" or "barracks"). He succeeded in imposing his choices and decisions upon the Assembly, which had once again become conservative in the aftermath of the June Days Uprising in 1848. Vous le trouverez dans une ou plusieurs des lignes ci-dessous. He not only possessed executive power, but was vested with the power of legislative initiative, thereby reducing the scope of the Parliament. "[71] Another 2015 study shows that coups are the strongest predictor for the imposition of democratic sanctions. Asia and the Middle East have experienced 13.1% and 15.8% of total global coups, respectively. A response to Miller (2016)", "Democratic versus Authoritarian Coups: The Influence of External Actors on States' Postcoup Political Trajectories", "Is the overthrow of a democratically elected government ever justified? In French, the word État (French: [eta]) is capitalized when it denotes a sovereign political entity.[2][3][4][5][6]. Germans still use the term Röhm-Putsch to describe the murders, the term given to it by the Nazi regime, despite its unproven implication that the murders were necessary to prevent a coup. Et tu t'inquiètes pour ton coup d'état. n. pl. [25][27][28] Hybrid regimes are more vulnerable to coups than are very authoritarian states or democratic states. The authors argue that military academies make it easier for military officers to plan coups, as the schools build networks among military officers. It dramatically expanded the powers of the president, who was elected for a period of 10 years with no term limits. [8] What may be its first published use within a text composed in English is an editor's note in the London Morning Chronicle, 7 January 1802, reporting the arrest by Napoleon in France, of Moreau, Berthier, Masséna, and Bernadotte: "There was a report in circulation yesterday of a sort of coup d'état having taken place in France, in consequence of some formidable conspiracy against the existing government. According to a 2020 study, "external reactions to coups play important roles in whether coup leaders move toward authoritarianism or democratic governance. Learn more in the Cambridge French-English Dictionary. [1] They find that coups have "been most common in Africa and the Americas (36.5% and 31.9%, respectively). A coup d’état is not simply a revolution instigated by an unhappy populace, it is a calculated power-grab by a political faction. The phrase coup d'état comes from French coup d'État, literally meaning a "state stroke", a "blow against the state". 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