Corner damages are developed due to insufficient wall-to-wall connections and lack of horizontal and vertical bond beams. Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre for Science Education. The list of non-structural elements in based on FEMA E-74 (FEMA, 2011) and FEMA P-58 (FEMA, 2012a). A mitigation action or project can reduce or eliminate the . Yön et al. US-Asia Conference on Engineering for Mitigating Natural Hazards Damage Thailand [8] Malaysian Meteorological Service. Development of Seismic Hazard Map for a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant Earthquake Disaster Preparedness in Malaysia, Earthquake Response and Recovery in Malaysia. Meanwhile, the combination of the social vulnerability map and seismic hazard In the year 2008, an earthquake hit the Sichuan China. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. a)Land-use planning. recur if the current dam configurations prevail. vulnerabilities within a community to develop earthquake mitigation priorities. These events which occur aggravate natural environmental processes cause disasters to human society such as sudden tectonic movements leading to earthquake and volcanic eruptions, continued dry conditions leading to prolonged droughts, floods, atmospheric disturbances, collision of celestial bodies, etc. The purpose of this chapter was to present earthquake characteristics and structural defects, damages, and possible solutions. . HAITI EARTHQUAKE MITIGATION. evaluated the performance of masonry and reinforced concrete buildings during the Bhuj earthquake in India on January 26, 2001 [11]. Non-structural activities – policies and practices which raise awareness of hazards or Lessons learned from the 1985 Mexican earthquake and the 1957 San Francisco earthquake phenomena have shown that earthquake can have significant effects although at longer distance due to long period component of shear waves. Print. Java and the north coast of Papua. and examples to develop mitigation projects for various natural disasters are provided on the following pages. In addition to this, low quality of structural materials, poor workmanship, lack of engineering services, and construction with insufficient detailing of the structural elements are the another reasons of damages. focused on description of building performance after the May 12, 2008, Wenchuan earthquake in China [18]. Using GIS to map hazard areas, at-risk structures, and associated hazards (e.g., liquefaction and landslides) to assess high-risk areas. This type of damages is given in Figure 17. Concrete quality is an important factor for building performance against to earthquakes. Earthquakes have only been recognised in the design of Australian buildings since 1995. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. When deep and rigid beams are used with flexible columns, weak column–strong beam failure mechanism is developed. In this document, survey and mitigation strategies Section 3 gives failure reasons of reinforced concrete (R/C) buildings. Similar cracking may have been observed at adobe buildings [41]. Seismotectonic Map of Malaysia (Leyu, 2009), All figure content in this area was uploaded by Sk Muiz Sk Abd Razak, All content in this area was uploaded by Sk Muiz Sk Abd Razak on Dec 09, 2015, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknolo, and economic functioning of the affected area. They determined the earthquake damages in reinforced concrete buildings and presented in their study [38]. conducted a field investigation in Thailand after December 26, 2004, Southeast Asia earthquake and tsunami. There are not many papers or researches regarding earthquake mitigation in Malaysia. and Ates et al. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Figures 3 and 4 show the tectonic plates and worldwide earthquake distribution, respectively. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. The finite element method has become widely accepted by the engineering professions as an extremely valuable method of analysis. Out-of-plane mechanism may appear from the combination of several deficiencies. develop mitigation policies, priorities, and strategies.” Senior FEMA Officials 0“There is an old saying: Earthquakes don’t kill people—buildings do!” 0“Earthquakes do not injure or kill people. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. A building does not meet the life-safety objective of ATC-22 if one or more of the following events occur; the entire building collapse, portions of the building collapse, components of the building fail and fall, exit and entry routes are blocked, preventing the evacuation and rescue the occupants. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment. In this book chapter, earthquakes and reasons of damages arose from earthquakes for reinforced concrete and masonry structures were presented. Nonstructural hazards pose a great risk to students, staff and visitors in schools during earthquakes.Nonstructural items like ceiling tiles, light fixtures, large windows, and parapets, as well as contents like bookshelves, file cabinets, computer monitors, and vending machines can fall and injure or kill occupants and block safe building egress. But masonry buildings are preferred because of the advantages such as thermal properties and simple construction by using local materials [31]. district space; and (2) the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology World Engineering Congress, Serawak. studied the failures of masonry and adobe buildings during the June 23, 2011, Maden, Elazığ earthquake in Turkey [31]. Although earthquakes cause death and destruction through such … This technique is based on digital filtering of high-frequency GPS and a, Earthquakes proved to be the most devastating natural disaster with a high mortality rate and wide spread destruction. evaluated strong ground motion and geotechnical and structural damages during the 2011 Van Turkey earthquakes [30]. sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis Body waves move through the interior layers of earth’s. 1994. construction projects which reduce economic and social impacts, Hazard management and vulnerability reduction, conduct training programs for the trainers, create disaster preparedness management program, initiate structural earthquake resistant design committee, form a Malaysian Earthquake Engineering Society, establish National Earthquake Research Center, establish National Earthquake Information Center, university level (geology, earthquake design in engineering subjects), continuing education program for public and professionals. b)Punblic Awareness. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the following Tōhoku Tsunami on March 11th, 2011, Japan has been facing a great challenge of the long-term and costly reconstruction of the impacted Tōhoku Coast, particularly in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures, where the highest damage ratio was documented. The research work covers the. Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1–1% for north Sulawesi, Seram The great Sumatran earthquake occurred on the 26th December 2004, measuring at 9.3 on the Richter Scale, had created tsunami that killed 283,100 people from surrounding countries, including Malaysia with 68 people died. A lack of bond beams, poor connections among the walls and the roofs, and large unsupported wall lengths cause the separation of walls and cause damage to occur via the of out-of-plane mechanism. Poorly built manmade structures injure and kill people.” 0“During the 20th Century, on average 20,000 people died from earthquakes each year. ASCE1, ... A residential structure in the 1992 Landers earthquake fault zone suffered relatively less damage, because its mat foundation was isolated partially from the fault-induced ground strain through slippage along a plastic sheet that had been placed under the mat during construction … The shapeless blocks show immediate reaction towards equilibrium. motion will occur on the one to ten - storey buildings in Penang and Kuala Lumpur. In 1999 Kocaeli earthquakes, more than 17,000 people were killed and more than 40,000 people were injured and 300,000 people became homeless. ATC-22 is carried out after the Rapid Visual Screening (RSP) evaluation procedure. Consequently, special attention should be paid to construction and design of beam–column joints and columns. depends on magnitude, depth of hypocenter, medium traversed by seismic waves; and physical and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The destructive potential of earthquakes depends on many factors such as focal depth, epicenter distance, and local site conditions. Learning From Earthquakes Non Structural Retroing And Other Mitigation Meas. These earthquakes struck Erciş (Van) district and Edremit (Van) district on 2011. The seismic performance of the masonry buildings relates to the in-plane stiffness of the walls. effects into earthquake disaster mitigation planning. functions in GIS tools. of a specific area. c)Good workmanship and adequate supervision. undertake mitigation training with support from state and federal governments. occurred along the Bukit Tinggi Fault Zone, which is believed to be a strike-slip fault, and related to, (JMGM) and Malaysia Meteorological Department (, Sarawak has experienced earthquakes of mainly local origins. Manfredi et al. Seismic activity that results in earthquake generates two types of seismic waves: body and surface. As a result of these heavy roofs, the structures are subjected to larger inertia forces during the earthquakes [41]. Non Structural Mitigation Against Earthquake A Case Study Of Istanbul Museums 1 Introduction The Exposure Marmara And. focused on damage observations and analyzed the emphasizing typical weaknesses of R/C buildings after the 2012 Emilia, Italy, earthquake [35]. By. Twitter. Failures reason of short column is especially occurred due to partially filled infill walls in R/C frame system. When two plates move with respect to each other, elastic strain energy is accumulated in results of tectonic processes. Such knowledge is needed to predict ground motions in future earthquakes so that earthquake-resistant structures can be designed. Earthquake Prediction, Control and Mitigation Earthquake Prediction Long-Term Forecasting Long-term forecasting is based mainly on the knowledge of when and where earthquakes have occurred in the past. Such approach is urgently needed for complex scenarios, like the historical one, but still, in many cases around the world, historical centers scenarios are not properly investigated according this holistic risk analysis standpoint. One- and two-story masonry buildings are common in the rural areas because they require easy workmanship. Lateral forces that occurred by an earthquake are carried by columns and shear walls. Unexpected inter-storey drift due to soft storey during the Van earthquake. This paper argues for a multidisciplinary method that integrates social vulnerability into Deliverable DC1. However, total economic loss was 16 billion dollars during this earthquake. Occurred medium or high-intensity magnitude earthquakes in last twenty years showed that these loses continue. Nonstructural hazards pose a great risk to students, staff and visitors in schools during earthquakes.Nonstructural items like ceiling tiles, light fixtures, large windows, and parapets, as well as contents like bookshelves, file cabinets, computer monitors, and vending machines can fall and injure or kill occupants and block safe building egress. Section 4 presents failure reasons of masonry building damages. The main reasons for this mechanism are the lack of bond beams, poor connections among the walls and roofs, and large unsupported wall lengths. The objective of this research is to develop strategies to mitigate damage, injury and business disruption associated with the earthquakes in the most vulnerable buildings of Australia’s cities. Generally, earthen roofs are constructed over wooden logs supported by two main walls of the buildings to provide thermal and water insulation. Strip slip fault graphical presentation and mechanism [7]. Nearly 10,000 people were killed every year because of these hazards. As the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia is located between the world’s most active seismic region. Many organizations have embarked on emergency management programs by boosting and creating awareness on mitigation.Risk analysis on physical constructions should be carried out to reduce physical threats. Pakistan is located in one of the most earthquake prone region with many devastating earthquakes in the past and active tectonic shows that there might be more earthquakes in future. When the increased stresses reached to bearing capacity of the crust on faults, this event causes sliding (breakthrough). Construction of multilayer walls with inadequate connections causes the disintegration at stone masonry buildings along the wall thickness. the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard Liquefaction is the phenomena when there is loss of strength in saturated and cohesionless soils because of increased pore water pressures and hence reduced effective stresses due to dynamic loading. to Peninsular Malaysia. As Haiti is known for being an earthquake area as it lies on a plate boundary, people should structure buildings so that they become more resistant to earthquakes. seismic hazard (with the exception for the Kuantan district, where it is highly vulnerable). Also, the gable walls of some masonry buildings are affected negatively by the out-of-plane mechanism. b)Punblic Awareness. Broaden awareness of the risk for earthquake damage and the need for earthquake insurance and mitigation through proactive outreach to civic and community organizations throughout California. Consultation cooperation: Proposing new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for whole Peninsular Malaysia and site specific analysis for the Manjung and Kenyir Dams under Tenaga Nasional Berhad organ, This research present a technique to reconstruct the waveform of oscillations of relatively long structures such as bridges. FEMA E-74 is the more detailed document available worldwide for the reduction of the non-structural earthquake damage. through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability Subsequent to facing extensive devastation by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, the government has realized the importance of earthquake management and hence encouraged the scientific research aiming for earthquake hazard assessment and strategies for risk reduction. consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Coburn, A.W., Pomonis, A., Sakai, S. 1989 Assessing strategies to reduce fatalities in earthquakes Jones, N.P. Failures can be concentrated at any story called as weak storey in which the lateral strength changes suddenly between adjacent stories due to lack of or removing of partition walls or decreasing of cross section of columns. For example, structural mitigation would be when a family reinforces there home to make it more wind proof, or earthquake proof. Damaged structure due to inadequate spacing between shear reinforcements during (a) Van earthquake and (b) Bingöl earthquake. Joshi, S.R.,Natural Disasters in North-East Region and its Management: An Essay, Centre Although failures of gable walls are not structural damages, these damages may be cause loss of lives and properties. Celep et al. designing, constructing and managing earthquake-resistant structures and facilities. . evaluated the performance of stone masonry buildings during the Aşkale andErzurum earthquakes in Turkey on March 25 and 28, 2004 [16]. Thus, shear failure which is a critical type of concrete column damage occurs at these columns. © 2017 The Author(s). Strain energy, which cumulated for a long time, discharges with sliding and causes earthquake shaking. These failures can be prevented by increasing of shear strength of this part of the column. (a) Detachment of infill wall during the Bingöl earthquake and (b) In-plane damage of during the Van earthquake. With the United States having four percent evaluated the reinforced concrete building damages during the 2011 Van earthquakes [32, 33]. Thus, homogeny mixing was not obtained and expected compressive strength was not provided in these buildings. After these earthquakes, 604 people were killed and 4852 people were injured, among of them 1301 people were seriously injured. The Effect of Sumatra Earthquakes Seismo-Tectonic Map of Malaysia. Earthquake Mitigation, introduces earthquake hazards and describes measures that can help reduce the risk of life and property should an earthquake occur at the school. effects of Sumatra earthquake have to be considered more seriously in Peninsular Malaysia. Beside tsunami, earthquakes, is needed in order to predict the possibility of earthqu, earthquakes. Using Hazus to quantitatively estimate potential losses from an earthquake. Plate tectonic deals with movement and strain of earth crust. 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